- 1. How did the Enlightenment change Western civilization? In what ways did the Encyclopedia symbolize the fundamental beliefs of the Enlightenment?
2. How did the creation of overseas colonies contribute to European political rivalries?
3. What were the major causes of the French Revolution? Were short-term or long-term factors more significant for producing the Revolution?
4. How and why did the degree of industrialization experienced by individual countries influence the balance of power within Europe?
5. In what ways did the ideas and actions of liberals, nationalists, and socialists challenge conservatives between 1815 and 1850?